From offshore wind turbines to latest smartphones, rare earths are embedded in our clean energy, in our smart tech and in fact in almost all aspects of our lives.

Rare earths are essential to our non - fossil fuel, “smart” and climate-friendly future. They are found in batteries, magnets, electric cars and high tech devices.

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An era associated with urbanization, climate change, automation, competition for resources, digitization, cleaner energy, connectivity.

An era accompanied by a wave of innovative new products, new technologies, efficient energy and material use to meet evolving consumer needs. Products and technologies that are portable, smart, digital, connected and, most importantly, “green”.

The wave of innovation is supported by increasingly specialized inputs which depend on ‘minor’ or specialty metals to make existing technologies more efficient and enable the development of new technologies. Rare earths are specialty metals and critical technology enablers.

Rare earths are central to clean energy production and are a leading driver for the growth of a number of emerging clean energy technologies contributing to reducing greenhouse gas emissions and dependence on fossil fuels.

Rare earths make the world’s strongest permanent magnets which are key to low-maintenance wind power, hybrid and electric vehicles, along with a vast array of electronic devices. Rare earth’s are used as phosphors in flat screen display panels and smart phones. They are also used in rechargeable batteries.

Rare earths are therefore a cornerstone of global government macro-initiatives aimed at improving energy efficiency, increasing renewable power generation capacity, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Government led initiatives will fuel over half of demand growth to 2025, providing a very strong macro outlook for rare earth demand.

Uranium is the fuel used to produce electricity in commercial nuclear power plants.

Nuclear power is the only source of energy for base load power generation that does not release carbon into the atmosphere.

In 2016, commercial nuclear power plants produced 2,490 TWh of electricity, about 10.6% of total world electricity generation.  There are currently 58 new nuclear power plants under construction and plans exist for another 160.  This production is  central to global efforts to manage the impact of climate change.

The largest producers of uranium include Kazakhstan, Canada and Australia.

Zinc has been used by mankind for thousands of years.

Zinc is most commonly used as an anti-corrosion agent and galvanization (coating of iron or steel) is the most familiar form. Half of all zinc produced today is used to galvanize steel to prevent against corrosion.

Zinc is used in brass, in which copper is alloyed with anywhere from 3% to 45% zinc.

Zinc is also an essential trace element for humans, animals, plants and microorganisms.

The zinc market is currently at historical highs and the outlook for the medium term is positive supported by concerns about long term supply.

Fluorspar (fluorite, CaF2) is an industrial mineral used in a number of chemical, ceramic, and metallurgical processes.

Fluorspar has a global market value of approximately US$2 billion and an annual demand of 6Mt per annum.

The long term outlook for global demand growth for fluorspar is positive and is forecast to exceed global GDP growth over the next 10 years.

China and Mexico are currently the leading global producers, accounting for approximately 80% of world production.